Irie, J., et al. (2020):Effect of oral administration of nicotinamide mononucleotide on clinical parameters and nicotinamide metabolite levels in healthy Japanese men*. Endocrine Journal,67(2), 153-160.

Outcome: NMN was safe and effectively metabolized in healthy men without causing any significant deleterious effects. Link to Study

Mills, K.F., et al. (2018)Long-Term Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide Mitigates Age-Associated Physiological Decline in Mice*. Cell Metabolism, 24(6), 795-806

Outcome: Long-term NMN administration can enhance vitality and extend lifespan by mitigating age-associated physiological decline. Link to Study

 Zhang, H. et al. (2016) NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice. Science, 352(6292), 1436-1443.

 Outcome:The study showed that by raising NAD+levels, NMN treatment rejuvenated stem cells in old mice, improving their regenerative capacity and increasing lifespan. Link to Study

 Uddin, G. M. et al. (2016). Administration of Nicotinamide Mononucleotide (NMN) Reduces Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemic Injury*. Translational Stroke Research, 11, 304–314.

Outcome:While the focus here was on ischemic injury in rats, it showcases NMN's protective effects in a disease context, indicating potential benefits for healthspan. Link to Study

 Gong, B. et al. (2013). Nicotinamide riboside restores cognition through an upregulation of proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α regulated β-secretase 1 degradation and mitochondrial gene expression in Alzheimer's mouse models*. Neurobiology of Ageing, 34(6), 1581-1588.

Outcome: In a mouse model of Alzheimer's, this study found that nicotinamide riboside (a NAD+ precursor, like NMN) improved aspects of brain health, potentially suggesting improved healthspan. Link to Study

 Poljsak, B., & Milisav, I. (2016).NAD+ as the link between oxidative stress, inflammation, caloric restriction, exercise, DNA repair, longevity, and health span*. Rejuvenation Research, 19(5), 406-413.

Outcome: This review discusses the general role of NAD+ and its precursors (including NMN) in linking various processes, including ageing and healthspan, in vertebrate models. Link to Study

 Zhang, H. et al. (2016). NAD⁺ repletion improves mitochondrial and stem cell function and enhances life span in mice*. Science, 352(6292), 1436-1443.

Outcome: This study showed that raising NAD+ levels through NMN supplementation improved mitochondrial function in old mice. Link to Study

 Fang, E. F. et al. (2016). NAD+ replenishment improves lifespan and healthspan in Ataxia telangiectasia models via mitophagy and DNA repair*. Cell Metabolism, 24(4), 566-581.

Outcome: NMN was shown to improve DNA repair and extend the lifespan of Ataxia telangiectasia models, a disorder characterized by genomic instability. Link to Study

 Minhas, P.S. et al. (2019). Macrophage de novo NAD+ synthesis specifies immune function in ageing and inflammation. Nature Immunology, 20, 50–63.

Outcome: NAD+ precursors like NMN reduced inflammation and tissue injury, which is associated with ageing, by decreasing the proportion of pro-inflammatory aged macrophages. Link to Study

 Ryu, D. et al. (2016). NAD+ repletion improves muscle function in muscular dystrophy. Science Translational Medicine, 8(361), 361ra139.

Outcome: NMN treatment improved muscle function and proteostasis (protein homeostasis) in a mouse model of muscular dystrophy. Link to Study

 Cantó, C. et al. (2015). NAD+ metabolism and the control of energy homeostasis: A balancing act between mitochondria and the nucleus. Cell Metabolism, 22(1), 31-53.

Outcome: This review touches on how NMN and NAD+ metabolism play a role in nutrient sensing pathways, such as the sirtuins and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which are critical in ageing. Link to Study

 Yoshino, J., Baur, J.A., & Imai, S.I. (2018). NAD+ intermediates: The biology and therapeutic potential of NMN and NR*. Cell Metabolism, 27(3), 513-528.

Outcome: While this publication is a review, it covers various studies, including early-phase human
trials with NMN, which provide a broad perspective on the biology of NMN and its therapeutic potential. Link to Study